At some level "democracy" refers to popular participation in politics, and therefore in this course we will examine ancient Greece (primarily Athens) and Rome with a view to evaluating the extent and quality of popular political participation. While doing this, we will compare and contrast the lives of citizens and non-citizens, of the free, the non-free and the "freed", and of men and women in ancient Athens and Rome. And in the process of evaluating ancient democracies, we may begin to re-evaluate our own.